單路門牌號碼規劃

Single road address planning

積丹尼
Dan JACOBSON
http://jidanni.org/

摘要

我們沿著一條路依距離發給或預留門牌號碼, 提供台灣各戶政事務所做參考。

依距離發門牌才能達到路的單、雙號對門: 601號要在600號對面而不是在對面又加不知道幾公里。 濃霧中救護車司機只需看里程表達1.5公里也就到600號了。 再也不需要「之幾」附號。 也不需跟著都市的成長一再「整編」門牌。

規劃時用一點GIS能省日後天天用GIS的必要。

在北美, 好門牌規劃早已家常便飯。 今想分享給台灣。

關鍵辭: 門牌號碼規劃

Abstract

A single road is assigned house numbers according to distance as a basic model usable by Taiwan's Household Bureaus.

Adhering to distance will keep left and right sides of the road consistent: not only will 601 be across the street from 600, but also finally nearby! In a fog an ambulance need merely read their odometer to 1.5 km. to reach 600. We eliminate the need for sub numbers, and the periodic need to renumber as the city grows.

A little investment in GIS in planning will save a lot of daily GIS need later.

We bring a tiny taste of useful addressing North Americans have known for years to Taiwan.

Keywords: address planning

  1. 任務概要 Task summary

    當一戶政事務所決定某路門牌號碼已亂到不可收拾, 必須整編時, 可採本文的方法: 我們不過是拿了一條路, 不管直的、彎的, 而依每公里四百個號碼發或預留門牌號碼, 左邊兩百個單數, 右邊兩百個雙數。

    When a Household Bureau has found the numbering of a road has grown unmanageable and intends to renumber, they might use this paper. All we are doing in this simplest case is taking a single road, straight or curving, and assigning or reserving addresses at a rate of 400 per kilometer traveled. 200 odd numbers on the left, 200 even numbers on the right.

    我們弄的這簡單的案子, 就是希望它很容易被各地戶政事務所理解及應用。 他們一定也是面臨相同的困境。

    Such a simple concept is meant to be readily acceptable and useable by other Household Bureaus throughout Taiwan. They are certainly facing the same problem.

  2. 優點 Advantages

    我們這樣徹底落實各轄《道路命名暨門牌編釘辦法》中的「預留」, 才能保證如601號真的在600號的對面。 憑著這側的門牌下公車、 停車子或救護車到達目的地, 過馬路不會又一次茫無頭緒、 倒楣、 甚至冤枉因為又下、停錯了。 當然北美早已做到。 在北美做廣告, 地址不必附圖, 不必問「在什麼路口?」。

    With this total reservation of all possible future house numbers, not just the minimum required by law, one can be assured that, e.g., address 601 will be across the street from 600, and we can get off the bus, or park the car or ambulance with confidence, without needing to double check numbers on the other side of the street first. Of course this is taken for granted in North America, where ads don't need to add maps to addresses; no need to ask "what crossroad is it at?"

    為了推行, 我們可以宣稱因為我們對地方未來繁榮有信心, 所以我們提早全面預留號碼。 惟仍應提醒地主們, 光是有預留號碼不等於搭建房屋之許可。 那末, 還是最好理清目標不過是系統化的門牌號碼, 而不見得是把土地塞滿了房子。

    One might promote the plan as "having confidence in the future growth of the community, we thus reserve all future house numbers." However, one must also remind property owners that merely having a number reserved doesn't mean they now necessarily have permission to build on their land. Indeed, it would be best to clarify that our goal is actually not necessarily to fill the land with houses, but merely systematic numbering.

    600號也就在該路1.5公里里程處, 濃霧看不到門牌就看里程表。 緊急狀況時不必操作什麼衛星定位導航電腦地理資訊系統等等, 來找柑子店的位置。

    Also we know to get here we need to travel 1.5 kilometers from the beginning of the street. In a fog one need only look at one's odometer. No fancy satellite positioning navigation computer geographical information system etc. needed to locate the corner store in emergencies.

    或見到200號, 那末到600號就要半公里整, 不必再玩遊戲。

    Or we see number 200. Thus we know we need a half kilometer to get to 600, no need for fun and games anymore.

    不再長很多601之1、 601之2…了, 導致必須屢次重編, 如孩童成長, 褲子又太小了。 今立「千年門牌」!

    No longer will the plaque of 601-1, 601-2,... accrue, necessitating periodic renumbering as the city grows. We achieve permanent addresses "built to last 1000 years".

    即是計畫文件均遺失, 系統的參數只需參考幾棟方房屋的門牌而得重建, 延續編。

    Even if all the planning documents are lost, the parameters of the system can be reconstructed and addressing continued by just looking at a few houses' addresses.

  3. 輔助地圖 Guidance maps

    我們產生輔助地圖, 沿著路的中央線加註輔助號碼, (輔助號碼僅供內部作業, 不製牌):

    We produce a guidance map with guide numbers along the center of the road. (These guide numbers are for office use only and are not placed on signs etc.):

    [圖 Image: 輔助地圖 Guidance map]

    圖:台中縣東勢鎮石城街 Image: Shicheng St., Dongshi Township, Taizhong County, Taiwan

    戶政事務所承辦員就用這些輔助號碼當作參考, 協助他做實際內插選號之決定, 依各地《道路命名暨門牌編釘辦法》, 「面向終點, 左單右雙」, 而編號。

    Household Bureau workers then use this map as a guide in making the actual interpolated address assignments. Odd on the left, even on the right, according to each area's "Road naming and addressing ordinance".

    此案起算點就在大馬路口, 當地居民公認為此街的開頭。

    Numbering starts at the road junction, which all residents consider the beginning of this street.

    遇巷口時亦頒巷號, 譬如承辦員大約會命名圖中的巷子為39、106、及148巷。

    Lanes are given numbers when encountered, e.g., the lanes pictured would probably be numbered 39, 106, and 148 by the workers.

    輔助號碼用意即授權於承辦員作細部決策。 略具彈性應變狀況, 畢竟至今仍欲「忌尾數四」等等(多半仍能吸收)。

    With the flexibility of guide numbers, workers are empowered to decide fine details, e.g., the silly custom of avoiding numbers ending in 4, which sounds similar to "death" in some Chinese languages. (Yes, at most densities we can absorb this.)

    輔助地圖永久保留, 日後之建物亦依之賜號。 路邊今有塘, 門牌應照留, 因為百年後可能為屋。 路邊今有橋, 明仍橋, 門牌仍應照留, 因為救難靠里程索位。 無理由吝於預留。 若覺得號碼太大, 能分段。 段有段理, 今不談之。

    The map is retained for use in future assignments. Even though there might be a pond next to the road now, in a hundred years it might become houses, so their numbers must be reserved now. We must even reserve along bridges, as our ambulance driver is looking at his odometer. There simply is no excuse not to "spend" those extra numbers. If the numbers get too high for comfort, the road can be divided into sections (1,2,3...), which is a subject worth a whole other paper.

    惟整數門牌只能發給正屬此路的路旁的建物。 就是說如果66號後面, 而不是旁邊, 也藏著一棟, 那麼只好給它如68巷7號, 甚至66之1號等等, 但不能給68號。

    Whole numbers however cannot be used for properties without actual frontage on our road. I.e., if there is a house hiding behind, not next to, number 66, then you can perhaps give it e.g., 7 Lane 68, or even maybe 66-1 etc. But you can't give it 68.

    1. 輔助地圖之製造 Production of guidance maps

      最簡單的方法去做出一張輔助地圖是去公所或林務局航空測量所, 拿五千分之一像片基本圖影印, 沿路加繪輔助號碼, 如

      In the simplest case, planners can photocopy a 1:5000 orthophoto map obtainable from the township office or the Forestry Bureau Aerial Survey Division, and along the road draw guidance numbers, e.g., (0+025K means 25 meters beyond kilometer marker 0)

      里程 K 輔助號碼 guidance number
      0+025 10
      0+050 20...
      1+000 400...

      坡度一般影響不大, 能忽略。 譬如兩公里長的路假如爬兩百公尺的海拔, 門牌僅增四, (畢達哥拉斯定理):

      Slope usually has minor influence and can be ignored. For instance, if a two kilometer long road climbs 200 meters in elevation, its addresses only increase by 4, (Pythagorean theorem):

      sqrt(2000**2+  0**2)*400/1000=800
      sqrt(2000**2+200**2)*400/1000=804
      

      製輔助地圖, 我們採GRASS, 見下文。 其實, 根本不需要電腦幫忙, 一把尺、 一枝鉛筆, 圖馬上就出來。

      We used GRASS to make our guidance maps. See below. Actually, one does not need a computer at all. Just a ruler, a pencil, and in moments one can have a map made.

      Makefile used.

    2. 每公里四百個號碼 400 numbers per kilometer

      採每公里四百個號碼是基於一般建物最小寬度限五公尺, 再則, 各地《道路命名暨門牌編釘辦法》也列:

      • 沿路、街兩旁之空地或塌毀房屋待建之基地, 應每間隔四至五公尺預留門牌號碼, 俟建築完成後, 順序編補。

      • 門牌編釘後之路、街, 因變更建築物或在空地原預留門牌中間新建之房屋而增加門牌, 應編為鄰近房屋之附號。

      順便見到亂源。 上句說要預留, 下句是萬一沒有預留。 我是整路每五公尺要預留, 什麼也不再問。 各地要不要修法? 反正各社區最理想的編定方式不見得都一致。

      We chose 400 numbers per kilometer based on Taiwan minimal building frontage of five meters. Also each area's "Road naming and addressing ordinance" states numbers should be reserved every four to five meters, but that is just for where officials think buildings will be built later. I say reserve every five meters no matter what, eliminating the need for the "later additions sub numbers" clause of the ordinance. Should the law be changed? Well, anyways, each community's best numbering system is not necessarily exactly the same.

      五公尺, 除以路的兩邊, 得每2.5公尺進一號, 每一公里則進四百號。 紐澳鄉野用每公里一百個號碼 〔連接已移〕, 但我認為還是把台灣全區看作都市, 不分市、鄉, 才方便。

      Five meters divided by the two sides of the road gives one house number per 2.5 meters, 400 numbers per kilometer. Rural Australia and New Zealand use 100 numbers per kilometer. But for Taiwan it would be more convenient to consider the whole island urban.

      (2016 年另試鄉下以較寬號距標準、 二元樹的燥坑遍歷。 However in 2016 I experimented with using a wider distance in rural areas; Binary tree Zaokengian traversal.)

  4. 局限 Limitations

    本文只是沿著單條路, 依距離預留門牌。 遇巷給巷號但未轉入巷內再作比現行法令更嚴之規範。 因為本方法簡單, 所以獲得社區與戶政事務所的認同。

    In this paper we merely number a single road according to distance. We assigned lane numbers but did venture down the lanes to regulate further beyond current laws. By not being overly complex we won acceptance by the community and local Household Bureau.

    的確沒錯, 我們一條一條做就犧牲做整體規劃的機會, 例如使平行道路的門牌號碼同步化, 但是, 只有某路公認為太亂時, 才可能交給我們重編, 加上民眾認為門牌必須由一號算起, 那末我們只好一條一條做。

    Indeed, numbering individual streets this way might preclude more integrated whole city approaches, like parallel roads' addresses advancing in lockstep, but it is only when a street has become unmanageable does it come up for renumbering so we might be able to get our hands on it. Besides, the public has a deep rooted concept that proper roads' addresses must start with the number 1. So the best we can do is proceed one road at a time.

    單條編,千年門牌。 整體編,萬年門牌。 隨便編,十年門牌。 而且經常輕易把人家門牌改來改去, 有一日他們會向戶政事務所索賠。

    Single road addressing: "good for 1000 years". City-at-once addressing: "good for 10000 years". Sloppy addressing: "good for 10 years". P.S.: habitually changing people's addresses back and forth will one day find your Bureau facing compensation claims.

    老朋久未聯絡, 有一天寄信, 遭「拒收」或「查無此人」, 以為您生氣或過世。

    A letter from some long ago friend is returned "refused" or "no such person". He thinks you are angry or dead.

    經常換門牌但無「國防必要」。

    It's not like there's some national security reason to keep changing addresses.

    用少量GIS於規劃, 省大筆GIS於管理。 可惜都市計畫教授們, 無論國內外, 看不出門牌號碼自然為都市計畫的一部分。 當然某路不一定要落在都市計畫範圍內才可以做好門牌。 有太多太多能夠做, 如平行的路, 號碼同步, 或整體依座標, 路名配合門牌號碼, 等等。 見敝網站(J)

    A little GIS (Geographical Information System) in the planning stage will save a lot of GIS daily management later. What a shame city planning professors worldwide don't recognize address planning is a natural part of city planning. Of course a road need not lie within a city plan for us to number it properly. There is so much that can be done. Numbering parallel streets in parallel, or in a grid, street names coordinated with house numbers, etc. See my web pages(J).

  5. 原則 Principles

    我們一向想做個符合國人對門牌的理解的系統, 符合其口中的「門牌語言」, 一般路人當場空手用得到的。 空手無地圖順利到達位置而不需要GIS團隊們的幫忙。

    All along we aim to make a system that fits with the public's understanding of house numbering, without computer assistance. We stay within the public's "addressing language". The system must be usable by the "man in the street" without needing a map or the help of some GIS team.

    我們不是沒事找事, 主動地要把人家好好的門牌「整編」為了符合我們某某理想主義。 我們是被動的: 既然戶政事務所已下決定某路要整編, 那麼這次整編好一點, 就不需要個下次了。

    We don't go around "looking for completely usable addresses to rip up". Instead we say if a Household Bureau has already decided they must renumber, then at least do it right this time so there need not be a next time.

  6. 地理資訊系統實行 GIS Implementation

    我們用GRASS GIS(G)製造輔助地圖。

    We used GRASS GIS(G) to make our guidance maps.

    底圖可拿政府的向量圖檔做, 但是後來我們還是拿了承辦員也拿得到的像片基本圖, 加以掃描。 用了:

    One might start with government vector maps, but we ended up just scanning in the same orthophotomaps that are available to the workers. We used GRASS commands including: db.execute, db.select, i.group, i.rectify, i.target, r.in.gdal, v.build.polylines, v.category, v.digit, v.net, v.net.path, v.overlay, v.to.db, v.to.points, and Debian GNU/Linux(D) packages xsane, sane, netpbm, etc.

    均為自有軟體(F)。

    All Free Software(F).

  7. 結論與建議 Conclusion and recommendations

    在如北美, 門牌號碼早就提供可靠地理訊息, 發揮為民服務功能。 有的都市連小孩能告訴你某路某號在那兒。 但在台灣我們仍幾乎盲目亂發門牌, 然後必須用龐大地理資訊系統拾起及管理之。 未來我們能夠而且一定要做得更好。

    In e.g., North America, addresses have long given reliable geographic information to the public. There are cities where even kids can tell you how to get to some address on some road. In Taiwan however we are still almost blindly spewing out addresses, requiring fancy GIS to keep track of where we put them. Let's do better.

  8. 附註 Notes

    作者為台中縣東勢鎮戶政事務所志工顧問。 The author is a volunteer consultant to the Dongshi Township Household Bureau, Taizhong County, Taiwan.

    2005年夏本案業已由東勢戶政事務所實施。 This plan was implemented by Dongshi Household Bureau in Summer 2005.

  9. 參考文獻 References

    (D) Debian Project: http://www.debian.org/

    (F) FreeGIS Project: http://freegis.org/, Free Software Foundation: http://www.fsf.org/

    (G) GRASS GIS: http://grass.osgeo.org/

    (J) 積丹尼 Jacobson, D. 台灣門牌號碼規劃 Taiwan address planning: http://jidanni.org/geo/house_numbering/


本文核心文寫作日期:2005年春季。 This article was mostly written Spring, 2005.

榮膺台中縣2005年熱心戶政公益社會人士表揚 Received 2005 Taizhong County citizens assisting household administration award.

本文發表於第四屆數位地球國際研討會, 台北 2006年。 This paper was presented at the 4th Taipei International Conference on Digital Earth, 2006.

版權: GNU 自由文件許可 Copyright: GNU Free Documentation License

Last modified: 2016-08-10 16:42:35 +0800